From Researching Virtual Initiatives in Education
For entities in Libya see Category:Libya
Partners situated in Libya
Libya in a nutshell
Libya (Arabic: ليبيا Lībiyā); (Libyan vernacular: Lībya), officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ( الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمى Al-Jamāhīriyyah al-ʿArabiyyah al-Lībiyyah aš-Šaʿbiyyah al-Ištirākiyyah al-ʿUẓmā ) is a country located in North Africa. Bordering the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Libya lies between Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres (700,000 sq mi), 90% of which is desert, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa by area, and the 17th largest in the world.
Libya has 5.7 million people - of whom 1.7 million live in the capital, Tripoli.
It has the fifth highest GDP (PPP) per capita of Africa, behind Botswana, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Seychelles. This is largely due to its large petroleum reserves and low population. The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which constitute practically all export earnings and about one-quarter of gross domestic product (GDP). In the early 1980s, Libya was one of the wealthiest countries in the world; its GNP per capita was higher than that of countries such as Italy, Singapore, South Korea, Spain and New Zealand. Today, high oil revenues and a small population give Libya one of the highest GDPs per person in Africa and have allowed the Libyan state to provide an extensive level of social security, particularly in the fields of housing and education. Many problems still beset Libya's economy however; unemployment is the highest in the region at 21% according to the latest census figures.[
Libya has begun some market-oriented reforms. Initial steps have included applying for membership of the World Trade Organization, reducing subsidies, and announcing plans for privatisation. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, and steel.
There are twenty-two districts of Libya, known by the term shabiyah (Arabic singular sha'biyah, plural sha'biyat). In the 1990s these replaced the older baladiyat system.
Historically the area of Libya was considered three provinces (or states), Tripolitania in the northwest, Cyrenaica in the east, and Fezzan in the southwest. It was the conquest by Italy in the Italo-Turkish War that united them in a single political unit. Under the Italians Libya was eventually divided into four provinces and one territory: Tripoli, Misurata, Benghazi, Derna, (in the north) and the Territory of the Libyan Sahara (in the south). After the French and British occupied Libya in 1943, it was again split into three provinces: Tripolitania in the northwest, Cyrenaica in the east, and Fezzan-Ghadames in the southwest.
Article 176 of the constitution of Libya stated "The Kingdom of Libya shall be divided into administrative units in conformity with the law to be promulgated in this connection. Local and municipal councils may be formed in the Kingdom. The extend of these units shall be determined by law which shall likewise organize these Councils." in exact quote.
After independence, Libya was divided into three governorates (muhafazat), matching the three provinces of before, but in 1963 it was divided into ten governorates. In 1983 a new system was introduced dividing the country into forty-six districts (baladiyat). In 1987 this was reduced to twenty-five districts.
On 2 August 1995, Libya reorganized into thirteen districts (shabiyat). In 1998 this was increased to 26 shabiyat districts. In 2001 it was increased to thirty-two districts plus three administrative regions. Finally in 2007 to was reduced to twenty-two districts. Hopefully this is now stable.
Libya has begun some market-oriented reforms. Initial steps have included applying for membership of the World Trade Organization, reducing subsidies, and announcing plans for privatisation. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel.
Native Libyans are primarily Arab or a mixture of Arab and Berber ethnicities, with a small minority of Berber-speaking tribal groups and small black African groups like Tuareg and Tebu, which are nomadic or seminomadic. Among foreign residents, the largest groups are citizens of other African nations, including North Africans (primarily Egyptians), and Sub-Saharan Africans. In 2011, there were also an estimated 60,000 Bangladeshis, 30,000 Chinese and 30,000 Filipinos in Libya. Libya is home to a large illegal population which numbers more than one million, mostly Egyptians and Sub-Saharan Africans. Libya has a small Italian minority. Previously, there was a visible presence of Italian settlers, but many left after independence in 1947 and many more left in 1970 after the accession of Muammar Gaddafi.
The main language spoken in Libya is Arabic (Libyan dialect) by 95% of the Libyans, and Modern Standard Arabic is also the official language; the Berber languages spoken by 5% (i.e. Berber and Tuareg languages), which do not have official status, are spoken by Berbers and Tuaregs in the south part of the country beside Arabic language. Berber speakers live above all in the Jebel Nafusa region (Tripolitania), the town of Zuwarah on the coast, and the city-oases of Ghadames, Ghat and Awjila. In addition, Tuaregs speak Tamahaq, the only known Northern Tamasheq language, also Toubou is spoken in some pockets in Qatroun village and Koffra city. Italian and English are sometimes spoken in the big cities, although Italian speakers are mainly among the older generation.
There are about 140 tribes and clans in Libya. Family life is important for Libyan families, the majority of which live in apartment blocks and other independent housing units, with precise modes of housing depending on their income and wealth. Although the Libyan Arabs traditionally lived nomadic lifestyles in tents, they have now settled in various towns and cities. Because of this, their old ways of life are gradually fading out. An unknown small number of Libyans still live in the desert as their families have done for centuries. Most of the population has occupations in industry and services, and a small percentage is in agriculture.
Libya education policy
Education in Libya is free for all citizens, and compulsory up until secondary level.
Libya education system
Libya's population includes 1.7 million students, over 270,000 of whom study at the tertiary level. The literacy rate is the highest in North Africa; over 82% of the population can read and write.
Primary education is both free and compulsory in Libya. Children between the ages of 6 and 15 attend primary school and then attend secondary school for three additional years (15- to 18-year-olds). According to figures reported for the year 2000, approximately 766,807 students attended primary school and had 97,334 teachers; approximately 717,000 students were enrolled in secondary, technical, and vocational schools; and about 287,172 students were enrolled in Libya’s universities.
In 2001 public expenditures on education amounted to about 2.7 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP). Although no figures were found for government expenditures on education, Libyan television announced on September 1, 2004, that a new ministry for education had been formed, the General People’s Committee for Higher Education. In the early 1980s, estimates of total literacy were between 50 and 60 percent, or about 70 percent for men and 35 percent for women, but the gender gap has since narrowed, especially because of increased female school attendance. For 2001 the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report estimates that the adult literacy rate climbed to about 80.8 percent, or 91.3 percent for males and 69.3 percent for females. According to 2004 U.S. government estimates, 82 percent of the total adult population (age 15 and older) is literate, or 92 percent of males and 72 percent of females.
Universities in Libya
After Libya's independence in 1951, its first university, the University of Libya, was established in Benghazi. In academic year 1975/76 the number of university students was estimated to be 13,418. As of 2004, this number has increased to more than 200,000.
The rapid increase in the number of students in the higher education sector has been mirrored by an increase in the number of institutions of higher education. Since 1975 the number of universities has grown from two to nine and after their introduction in 1980, the number of higher technical and vocational institutes currently stands at 84 (with 12 public universities). Libya's higher education is financed by the public budget. In 1998 the budget allocated for education represented 38.2% of the national budget.
The main universities in Libya are:
The main technology institutions are:
Polytechnics in Libya
The number of higher technical and vocational institutes stands at 84. There are 70,000 students enrolled in the higher technical and vocational sector.
Higher education reform
The Bologna Process
Administration and finance
Libya's HEIs in the information society
Towards the information society
Information society strategy
There was an Education Libya conference in 2007 with an ICT focus - see http://www.cuelc.eu/Events/education-libya-2007-conference-and-exhibitions
Virtual Campuses in HE
Interesting Virtual Campus Initiatives
National ICT Project for Capacity Building
UNESCO is cooperating with Libya in a "National ICT Project for Capacity Building" according to an agreement signed in 2005 in Libya’s capital Tripoli by Abdul Waheed Khan, UNESCO’s Assistant Director-General for Communication and Information, and the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.
Project activities include the establishment of Local Area Networks (LANs) within all 149 faculties belonging to various university campuses and institutes, and of Wide Area Network WAN) forming the Libyan Higher Education & Research Network (LHERN). It also foresees the creation of digital libraries/portals of educational resources, the development of ICT-enhanced learning solutions (e.g. e-learning, tele-education, tele-medicine, etc.).
An important component of the project is the training of faculty (digital literacy, basic IT skills, advanced teacher training on using ICTs in teaching and courseware development) and staff (system administrators, media center specialists, etc.).
In addition, the project foresees the creation of a national ICT resource Center for educators and the automation of university management systems through ICTs (e.g. student information systems, university procedures, financial operations, etc.)
Open University of Libya
The Open University of Libya is based in Tripoli. Created in 1987, it has branches in Benghazi, Sebha, Ejdabia, Derna, Misurata and El-Kufra. Curricula and teaching programmes have been delivered via printed and audiovisual materials. It now claims 7,000 students and around 5,600 graduates. It awards undergraduate and graduate degrees in Arabic, Islamic studies, law, business, social sciences, and education.
The university also prides itself on its Arabic-language academic press. It also has a collaboration agreement with Al-Quds Open University in Palestine.
Its web site is at http://www.libopenuniv-edu.org and appears active (at April 2009).